Fish Oil and Type II Diabetes.
October 9, 2016 Admin 0
Insulin resistance is a state in which the Insulin produced by the body, has a more reduced biochemical effect than is required to maintain proper metabolic function. In essence, problems arise when the cells stop responding to insulin as they are supposed to. A study conducted in 2002 showed that nearly a third of the US population may have advanced insulin resistance.
Health issues of insulin resistance are part of a broad spectrum of conditions, often referred to as ‘Syndrome X’ or metabolic syndrome. Such conditions are obesity, glucose intolerance, cardiovascular disease and other metabolic disorders. Metabolic syndrome poses one of the main risks for the development of type II diabetes, particularly to those who follow a typical western diet, high in processed foodstuffs, fructose and refined carbohydrates.
In response to the issue, research has suggested that nutrition can ameliorate conditions where raised plasma lipid levels (hyperlipidemia) are indicated. Fish oils, an already popular supplement has been used to reduce levels of VLDL which represent the fasting levels of triglycerides in plasma.
In evaluation of relevant studies, researchers attempted to quantify the effectiveness of fish oil supplements on the plasma lipoprotein concentrations in type II diabetics. In total, 18 trials with approximately 820 subjects were examined with a mean length of 12 weeks. Dosages of fish oil implemented were up to 18g in a 24hr period.
The supplements exhibited an effect which significantly lowered plasma VLDL (triglycerides) by an average of 0.56 mmol/L, whilst simultaneously raising LDL levels by 0.21 mmol/L. Conversely though, the same fish oil supplements had no effect on total cholesterol and did not significantly affect HDL. The studies noted that the triglyceride lowering effects were most significant in those studies using subjects with the most elevated levels and with the highest concentrations.
Fish oils appear therefore to be an effective supplement for lowering plasma concentrations of VLDL. Fish oils can lower plasma VLDL because they decrease secretion of triglycerides from the liver. The increase in LDL is interesting but has been previously reported in the literature following fish oil supplements. It is thought that fish oil supplements decrease the uptake and catabolism of intermediate density lipoproteins (IDL) instead causing production of LDL through cholesterol uptake.
As the length of time the LDL particles stay in the plasma does not change, the result is an increase in LDL particle number in the plasma. However, LDL is made up of both small dense particles and large buoyant particles, with only the former type increasing risk of cardiovascular disease. Fish oils may increase only the large buoyant particles of LDL and the increase in concentration may not signify a detrimental change.
1Montori, V. M., Farmer, A., Wollan, P. C. and Dinneen, S. F. 2000. Fish oil supplementation in type 2 diabetes: a quantitative systematic review. Diabetes Care. 23(9): 1407-1415
2Fisher, W. R., Zech, L. and Stacpoole, P. W. 1998. Apolipoprotein B metabolism in hypertriglyceridemic diabetes patients administered either as a fish oil- or vegetable oil-enriched diet. Journal of Lipid Research. 39: 388-401
Tags: cardiovascular, cod, concentration, diabetes, disease, dpa, epa, fish, fish oils, fishoils, LDL, lipoprotein, liver, obesity, omega 3, omega3, plasma, prevention, salmon, supplement, triglyceride, vldl